CADENCE SCIENCE


OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS, A WEALTH OF RESEARCH HAS EMERGED ON STEP RATE (AKA CADENCE) AS A MEANS TO PREVENT AND ADDRESS COMMON RUNNING RELATED INJURIES. AS CLINICIANS, WE STRIVE TO BASE OUR DECISIONS ON THE BEST AND MOST CURRENT EVIDENCE. WE THEREFORE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE HELPFUL TO HIGHLIGHT SEVERAL IMPACT PAPERS ON THE TOPIC OF STEP RATE THAT DIRECTLY INFLUENCE OUR DECISIONS IN MANAGING RUNNERS. WHILE THIS IS BY NO MEANS EXHAUSTIVE, WE ARE CONFIDENT THAT IT WILL HIGHLIGHT SEVERAL KEY STUDIES THAT WILL SERVE TO REFINE ONE'S UNDERSTANDING OF STEP RATE AS IT RELATES TO THE RUNNING GAIT. AT DAY'S END, INCREASING STEP RATE WHILE KEEPING RUNNING VELOCITY CONSTANT IS  A SIMPLE MEANS TO REDUCE THE MAGNITUDE OF LOADING.  


HIP

 

 

 

LENHART R, THELEN D, HEIDERSCHEIT B. HIP MUSCLE LOADS DURING RUNNING AT VARIOUS STEP RATES. J ORTHOP SPORTS PHYS THER. 2014 OCT;44(10):766-74, A1-4. DOI: 10.2519/JOSPT.2014.5575. EPUB 2014 AUG 25.PMID: 2515604 

CHUMANOV ES, WILLE CM, MICHALSKI MP, HEIDERSCHEIT BC. CHANGES IN MUSCLE ACTIVATION PATTERNS WHEN RUNNING STEP RATE IS INCREASED. GAIT POSTURE. 2012 JUN;36(2):231-5. DOI: 10.1016/J.GAITPOST.2012.02.023. EPUB 2012 MAR 17. PMID: 22424758

HEIDERSCHEIT BC, CHUMANOV ES, MICHALSKI MP, WILLE CM, RYAN MB. EFFECTS OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON JOINT MECHANICS DURING RUNNING. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2011 FEB;43(2):296-302. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0B013E3181EBEDF4. PMID: 20581720 


KNEE

 

 

LUEDKE LE, HEIDERSCHEIT BC, WILLIAMS DS, RAUH MJ. INFLUENCE OF STEP RATE ON SHIN INJURY AND ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN HIGH SCHOOL RUNNERS. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2016 JAN 26. [EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT] PMID: 2681815

WILLSON JD, RATCLIFF OM, MEARDON SA, WILLY RW. INFLUENCE OF STEP LENGTH AND LANDING PATTERN ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT KINETICS DURING RUNNING. SCAND J MED SCI SPORTS. 2015 DEC;25(6):736-43. DOI: 10.1111/SMS.12383. EPUB 2015 JAN 14. PMID:255855895.

WILLY RW, MEARDON SA, SCHMIDT A, BLAYLOCK NR, HADDING SA, WILLSON JD.CHANGES IN TIBIOFEMORAL CONTACT FORCES DURING RUNNING IN RESPONSE TO IN-FIELD GAIT RETRAINING. J SPORTS SCI. 2015 DEC 17:1-10. [EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT] PMID: 26679058

LENHART RL, SMITH CR, VIGNOS MF, KAISER J, HEIDERSCHEIT BC, THELEN DG. INFLUENCE OF STEP RATE AND QUADRICEPS LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON PATELLOFEMORAL CARTILAGE CONTACT PRESSURES DURING RUNNING. J BIOMECH. 2015 AUG 20;48(11):2871-8. DOI: 10.1016/J.JBIOMECH.2015.04.036. EPUB 2015 MAY 22. PMID: 26070646

ALLEN DJ. TREATMENT OF DISTAL ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME IN A LONG DISTANCE RUNNER WITH GAIT RE-TRAINING EMPHASIZING STEP RATE MANIPULATION. INT J SPORTS PHYS THER. 2014 APR;9(2):222-31. PMID:24790783

LENHART RL, THELEN DG, WILLE CM, CHUMANOV ES, HEIDERSCHEIT BC. INCREASING RUNNING STEP RATE REDUCES PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT FORCES. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2014 MAR;46(3):557-64. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0B013E3182A78C3A. PMID: 23917470

MEARDON SA, CAMPBELL S, DERRICK TR. STEP WIDTH ALTERS ILIOTIBIAL BAND STRAIN DURING RUNNINGSPORTS BIOMECH. 2012 NOV;11(4):464-72. PMID: 23259236

HEIDERSCHEIT BC, CHUMANOV ES, MICHALSKI MP, WILLE CM, RYAN MB. EFFECTS OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON JOINT MECHANICS DURING RUNNING. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2011 FEB;43(2):296-302. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0B013E3181EBEDF4. PMID: 20581720 

BOYER ER, DERRICK TR. SELECT INJURY-RELATED VARIABLES ARE AFFECTED BY STRIDE LENGTH AND FOOT STRIKE STYLE DURING RUNNING. AM J SPORTS MED. 2015 SEP;43(9):2310-7. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515592837. EPUB 2015 AUG 4. PMID: 26243741

HEIDERSCHEIT BC, CHUMANOV ES, MICHALSKI MP, WILLE CM, RYAN MB. EFFECTS OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON JOINT MECHANICS DURING RUNNING. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2011 FEB;43(2):296-302. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0B013E3181EBEDF4. PMID: 20581720 

HOBARA H, SATO T, SAKAGUCHI M, SATO T, NAKAZAWA K. STEP FREQUENCY AND LOWER EXTREMITY LOADING DURING RUNNING. INT J SPORTS MED. 2012 APR;33(4):310-3. DOI: 10.1055/S-0031-1291232. EPUB 2012 MAR 1. PMID: 22383130

SCHUBERT AG, KEMPF J, HEIDERSCHEIT BC. INFLUENCE OF STRIDE FREQUENCY AND LENGTH ON RUNNING MECHANICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. SPORTS HEALTH. 2014 MAY;6(3):210-7. DOI: 10.1177/1941738113508544. PMID:24790690


LEG/SHIN

 

 

 

BARTON CJ, BONANNO DR, CARR J, NEAL BS, MALLIARAS P, FRANKLYN-MILLER A, MENZ HB. RUNNING RETRAINING TO TREAT LOWER LIMB INJURIES: A MIXED-METHODS STUDY OF CURRENT EVIDENCE SYNTHESISED WITH EXPERT OPINION. BR J SPORTS MED. 2016 FEB 16. PII: BJSPORTS-2015-095278. DOI: 10.1136/BJSPORTS-2015-095278. [EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT] REVIEW. PMID:26884223

LUEDKE LE, HEIDERSCHEIT BC, WILLIAMS DS, RAUH MJ. INFLUENCE OF STEP RATE ON SHIN INJURY AND ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN HIGH SCHOOL RUNNERS. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 2016 JAN 26. [EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT] PMID: 2681815 

WILLY RW, BUCHENIC L, ROGACKI K, ACKERMAN J, SCHMIDT A, WILLSON JD.  IN-FIELD GAIT RETRAINING AND MOBILE MONITORING TO ADDRESS RUNNING BIOMECHANICS ASSOCIATED WITH TIBIAL STRESS FRACTURE. SCAND J MED SCI SPORTS. 2016 FEB;26(2):197-205. DOI: 10.1111/SMS.12413. EPUB 2015 FEB 4. PMID: 25652871

BREEN DT, FOSTER J, FALVEY E, FRANKLYN-MILLER A. GAIT RE-TRAINING TO ALLEVIATE THE SYMPTOMS OF ANTERIOR EXERTIONAL LOWER LEG PAIN: A CASE SERIES. INT J SPORTS PHYS THER. 2015 FEB;10(1):85-94. PMID:25709867


ANKLE

 

 

 

WELLENKOTTER J, KERNOZEK TW, MEARDON S, SUCHOMEL T. THE EFFECTS OF RUNNING CADENCE MANIPULATION ON PLANTAR LOADING IN HEALTHY RUNNERS. INT J SPORTS MED. 2014 AUG;35(9):779-84. DOI: 10.1055/S-0033-1363236. EPUB 2014 MAR 4. PMID: 24595812

WILLSON JD, KERNOZEK TW. PLANTAR LOADING AND CADENCE ALTERATIONS WITH FATIGUE. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 1999 DEC;31(12):1828-33. PMID:10613435

SCHUBERT AG, KEMPF J, HEIDERSCHEIT BC. INFLUENCE OF STRIDE FREQUENCY AND LENGTH ON RUNNING MECHANICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. SPORTS HEALTH. 2014 MAY;6(3):210-7. DOI: 10.1177/1941738113508544. PMID:24790690


FOOT





WELLENKOTTER J, KERNOZEK TW, MEARDON S, SUCHOMEL T. THE EFFECTS OF RUNNING CADENCE MANIPULATION ON PLANTAR LOADING IN HEALTHY RUNNERS. INT J SPORTS MED. 2014 AUG;35(9):779-84. DOI: 10.1055/S-0033-1363236. EPUB 2014 MAR 4. PMID: 24595812

WILLSON JD, KERNOZEK TW. PLANTAR LOADING AND CADENCE ALTERATIONS WITH FATIGUE. MED SCI SPORTS EXERC. 1999 DEC;31(12):1828-33. PMID:10613435

SCHUBERT AG, KEMPF J, HEIDERSCHEIT BC. INFLUENCE OF STRIDE FREQUENCY AND LENGTH ON RUNNING MECHANICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. SPORTS HEALTH. 2014 MAY;6(3):210-7. DOI: 10.1177/1941738113508544. PMID:24790690



Retraining: 

DOS SANTOS AF, NAKAGAWA TH, NAKASHIMA GY, MACIEL CD, SERRÃO F.THE EFFECTS OF FOREFOOT STRIKING, INCREASING STEP RATE, AND FORWARD TRUNK LEAN RUNNING ON TRUNK AND LOWER LIMB KINEMATICS AND COMFORT. INT J SPORTS MED. 2016 FEB 8. [EPUB AHEAD OF PRINT] PMID:26855432

HAFER JF, BROWN AM, DEMILLE P, HILLSTROM HJ, GARBER CE. THE EFFECT OF A CADENCE RETRAINING PROTOCOL ON RUNNING BIOMECHANICS AND EFFICIENCY: A PILOT STUDY. J SPORTS SCI. 2015;33(7):724-31. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2014.962573. EPUB 2014 NOV 4. PMID: 25369525